Rhizoctonia solani is a fungal pathogen causing substantial damage to many of the worlds’ largest food crops including wheat, rice, maize and soybean. Despite impacting global food security, little is known about the pathogenicity mechanisms employed by R. solani. To enable prediction of effectors possessing either broad efficacy or host specificity, a combined secretome was constructed from a monocot specific isolate, a dicot specific isolate and broad host range isolate infecting both monocot and dicot hosts. Secretome analysis suggested R. solani employs largely different virulence mechanisms to well-studied pathogens, despite in many instances infecting the same host plants. Furthermore, the secretome of the broad host range AG8 isolate may be shaped by maintaining functions for saprophytic life stages while minimising opportunities for host plant recognition. Analysis of possible co-evolution with host plants and in-planta up-regulation in particular, aided identification of effectors including xylanase and inhibitor I9 domain containing proteins able to induce cell death in-planta. The inhibitor I9 domain was more abundant in the secretomes of a wide range of necrotising fungi relative to biotrophs. A complementary proteomics approach provided insights into how the broad host range AG8 isolate adapts to different hosts and identified additional infection-related proteins including a thaumatin that enhanced susceptibility to R. solani. These use of these effectors and others from R. solani to screen germplasm for loss-of-sensitive loci may be a useful approach to build resistance in crops such as wheat, where no resistance currently exists.